Fighting Two Infection Diseases: The Tales of Local Meat Vendors in dealing with COVID-19 and ASF


  • John Paul CAMEROS
  • Randy A. TUDY Cor Jesu College
  • Ernesto A. QUIDET Cor Jesu College
  • Ida G. TUDY Cor Jesu College


Meat vendors, African Swine Fever (ASF), COVID-19, Philippines


The COVID-19 Pandemic has practically affected businesses all over the world, whether they are small, medium, or macro enterprises. The business community was in survival mode and attempting to recover. In addition to the interruptions caused by the pandemic, the African Swine Fever (ASF) struck numerous nations. The goal of this paper is to look into the experiences of local meat vendors as they dealt with the ASF outbreak and the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative phenomenological research involved ten pork meat vendors in the Southern Philippines who participated in the key informant interviews (KII). The data from the interview analysis is used to achieve what is called phenomenological psychological reduction. Ethical concerns, such as maintaining confidentiality and anonymity, were taken into account. Pseudonyms replace the original names to maintain anonymity in this work. Before conducting the interview, the informants read the full content of the informed consent before signing it. Participants were also allowed to use the language they felt comfortable with. This investigation uncovered the following major themes relating to local meat vendors: a huge reduction in income; dealing with government regulations; fear of viruses; and the threat of competition. Two themes emerged for their coping strategies: innovation and strengthening customer loyalty. This study also found that it was difficult for the local meat vendors to cope with the two contagious illnesses (COVID-19 and ASF), but they had to do so to survive and make a livelihood.


Abdullahi, A., Hassan, Kadarman, N., Saleh, A., Baraya, Y. U. S. A., & Lua, P. L. (2016). Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia. International journal of general medicine, 9, 79-87.

Aday, S., & Aday, M. S. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on the food supply chain. Food Quality and Safety, 4(4), 167-180.

Angeles-Agdeppa, I., & S. Custodio, M. R. (2020). Food sources and nutrient intakes of filipino working adults. Nutrients, 12(4), 1009.

Attwood, S., & Hajat, C. (2020). How will the COVID-19 pandemic shape the future of meat consumption?. Public health nutrition, 23(17), 3116-3120.

Brito, B. P., Rodriguez, L. L., Hammond, J. M., Pinto, J., & Perez, A. M. (2017). Review of the global distribution of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 64(2), 316-332.

Colaizzi, P.F. (1978). Psychological research as the phenomenologist views I. In R. Valle, & M. King (Eds.), Existential phenomenological alternatives in psychology (pp.48-71). Oxford University Press.

Cruz, E. (2019). Philippine hog industry’s losses from swine fever nearly $20 million a month. Reuters.

Cvetković, V. M., Nikolić, N., Radovanović Nenadić, U., Öcal, A., K Noji, E., & Zečević, M. (2020). Preparedness and preventive behaviors for a pandemic disaster caused by COVID-19 in Serbia. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(11), 4124.

D’Souza, D. N., & Dunshea, F. R. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 on the Australian pork industry. Animal Frontiers, 11(1), 19-22.

Danzetta, M. L., Marenzoni, M. L., Iannetti, S., Tizzani, P., Calistri, P., & Feliziani, F. (2020). African swine fever: Lessons to learn from past eradication experiences. A systematic review. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 296.

Deaton, B. J., & Deaton, B. J. (2020). Food security and Canada’s agricultural system challenged by COVID‐19. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie, 68(2), 143-149.

Dharmayanti, N. I., Sendow, I., Ratnawati, A., Settypalli, T. B. K., Saepulloh, M., Dundon, W. G., ... & Lamien, C. E. (2021). African swine fever in North Sumatra and West Java provinces in 2019 and 2020, Indonesia. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 68(5), 2890-2896.

Ding, Y., Wang, C., He, L., Tang, Y., Li, T., & Yin, Y. (2021). Effect of COVID-19 on animal breeding development in China and its countermeasures. Animal Frontiers, 11(1), 39-42.

Dione, M. M., Akol, J., Roesel, K., Kungu, J., Ouma, E. A., Wieland, B., & Pezo, D. (2017). Risk factors for African swine fever in smallholder pig production systems in Uganda. Transboundary and emerging diseases, 64(3), 872-882.

Dione, M., Ouma, E., Opio, F., Kawuma, B., & Pezo, D. (2016). Qualitative analysis of the risks and practices associated with the spread of African swine fever within the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda. Preventive veterinary medicine, 135, 102-112.

Doi, H., Gałęcki, R., & Mulia, R. N. (2021). The merits of entomophagy in the post COVID-19 world. Trends in Food Science & Technology.

Domingo, E., Baranowski, E., Escarmı́s, C., & Sobrino, F. (2002). Foot-and-mouth disease virus. Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 25(5-6), 297-308.

Donthu, N., & Gustafsson, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on business and research. Journal of business research, 117, 284.

El-Tholoth, M., Bai, H., Mauk, M. G., Saif, L., & Bau, H. H. (2021). A portable, 3D printed, microfluidic device for multiplexed, real time, molecular detection of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and porcine deltacoronavirus at the point of need. Lab on a Chip, 21(6), 1118-1130.

Fanelli, A., Muñoz, O., Mantegazza, L., De Nardi, M., & Capua, I. (2022). Is the COVID‐19 pandemic impacting on the risk of African Swine Fever virus (ASFV) introduction into the United States? A short‐term assessment of the risk factors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 69(4), e505-e516.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. (2022). African swine fever (ASF) situation update in Asia & Pacific.

Gallardo, M. C., de la Torre Reoyo, A., Fernández-Pinero, J., Iglesias, I., Muñoz, M. J., & Arias, M. L. (2015). African swine fever: a global view of the current challenge. Porcine Health Management, 1(1), 1-14.

Giorgi, A. P. & Giorgi, B. M. (2003). The descriptive phenomenological method. In P. M. Camic, J. E. Rhodes, & L. Yardley (Eds.), Qualitative research in psychology: Expanding perspectives in methodology and design (pp. 243-273). American Psychological Association.

Gortázar, C., & de la Fuente, J. (2020). COVID-19 is likely to impact animal health. Preventive veterinary medicine, 180, 105030.

Groenewald, A. C., Prinsloo, J. J., & Pelser, T. G. (2014). Strategic marketing insights for small business meat retailers. International Business & Economics Research Journal (IBER), 13(3), 525-538.

Guba, E. (1981). Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 29(2), 75–91.

Gwin, L., & Lev, L. (2011). Meat and poultry buying at farmers markets: A survey of shoppers at three markets in Oregon. Journal of Extension, 49(1), 1-8.

Hayes, D. J., Schulz, L. L., Hart, C. E., & Jacobs, K. L. (2021). A descriptive analysis of the COVID‐19 impacts on US pork, turkey, and egg markets. Agribusiness, 37(1), 122-141.

Hobbs, J. E. (2020). Food supply chains during the COVID‐19 pandemic. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie, 68(2), 171-176.

Kedkovid, R., Sirisereewan, C., & Thanawongnuwech, R. (2020). Major swine viral diseases: an Asian perspective after the African swine fever introduction. Porcine Health Management, 6(1), 1-11.

Kurz, D. J., Saikim, F. H., Justine, V. T., Bloem, J., Libassi, M., Luskin, M. S., ... & Potts, M. D. (2021). Transformation and endurance of Indigenous hunting: Kadazandusun‐Murut bearded pig hunting practices amidst oil palm expansion and urbanization in Sabah, Malaysia. People and Nature, 3(5), 1078-1092.

Laborde, D., Martin, W., Swinnen, J., & Vos, R. (2020). COVID-19 risks to global food security. Science, 369(6503), 500-502.

Lewis, C. E., & Roth, J. A. (2021). Challenges in Having Vaccines Available to Control Transboundary Diseases of Livestock. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 42(1), 1-40.

Luskin, M. S., Meijaard, E., Surya, S., Walzer, C., & Linkie, M. (2021). African Swine Fever threatens Southeast Asia’s 11 endemic wild pig species. Conservation Letters, 14(3), e12784

Martínez-Avilés, M., Iglesias, I., & De La Torre, A. (2020). Evolution of the ASF Infection Stage in Wild Boar within the EU (2014–2018). Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 7, 155.

Mason-D’Croz, D., Bogard, J. R., Herrero, M., Robinson, S., Sulser, T. B., Wiebe, K., ... & Godfray, H. C. J. (2020). Modelling the global economic consequences of a major African swine fever outbreak in China. Nature Food, 1(4), 221-228.

McEwan, K., Marchand, L., Shang, M., & Bucknell, D. (2020). Potential implications of COVID‐19 on the Canadian pork industry. Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d’agroeconomie, 68(2), 201-206.

Mussell, A., Bilyea, T., & Hedley, D. (2020). Agri‐food supply chains and Covid‐19: Balancing resilience and vulnerability. Agri-Food Economic Systems, 1-6.

Palicte, C. (2020). DA confirms ASF case in Davao City. Philippine News Agency.

Pejsak, Z., Truszczynski, M., Niemczuk, K., Kozak, E., & Markowska-Daniel, I. (2014). Epidemiology of African Swine Fever in Poland since the detection of the first case. Polish journal of veterinary sciences, 17(4). 665–672.

Pu, M., & Zhong, Y. (2020). Rising concerns over agricultural production as COVID-19 spreads: Lessons from China. Global food security, 26, 100409.

Rossow, K. D. (1998). Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome. Veterinary pathology, 35(1), 1-20.

Sariga, K., & Deepa, P. M. (2021). African swine fever: An overview. Indian J Anim Health, 60(1), 16-22.

Sauter-Louis, C., Conraths, F. J., Probst, C., Blohm, U., Schulz, K., Sehl, J., ... & Blome, S. (2021a). African swine fever in wild boar in Europe—a review. Viruses, 13(9), 1717.

Schulz, K., Conraths, F. J., Blome, S., Staubach, C., & Sauter-Louis, C. (2019). African swine fever: fast and furious or slow and steady?. Viruses, 11(9), 866.

Siche, R. (2020). What is the impact of COVID-19 disease on agriculture? Scientia Agropecuaria, 11(1), 3-6.

Simberloff, D. (2013). Invasive species: what everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press.

Singh, S., Kumar, R., Panchal, R., & Tiwari, M. K. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on logistics systems and disruptions in food supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 1-16.

Sugiura, K., Kure, K., Kato, T., Kyutoku, F., & Haga, T. (2020). Change in the ASF entry risk into Japan as a result of the COVID‐19 pandemic. Transboundary and emerging diseases.

Than, V. T., Choe, S. E., Vu, T. T., Do, T. D., Nguyen, T. L., Bui, T. T., ... & Le, V. P. (2020). Genetic characterization of the spike gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDVs) circulating in Vietnam from 2015 to 2016. Veterinary medicine and science, 6(3), 535-542.

Thanapongtharm, W., Wongphruksasoong, V., Sangrat, W., Thongsrimoung, K., Ratanavanichrojn, N., Kasemsuwan, S., ... & Leelahapongsathon, K. (2022). Application of Spatial Risk Assessment Integrated With a Mobile App in Fighting Against the Introduction of African Swine Fever in Pig Farms in Thailand: Development Study. JMIR Formative Research, 6(5), e34279.

Tudy, R. & Gauran-Tudy, I. (2020). Struggles, coping mechanisms, and insights of childless teachers in the Philippines: A descriptive phenomenological approach. 25(5), 1256-1278.

Woonwong, Y., Do Tien, D., & Thanawongnuwech, R. (2020). The future of the pig industry after the introduction of African swine fever into Asia. Animal Frontiers, 10(4), 30-37.

Xiong, D., Zhang, X., Xiong, J., Yu, J., & Wei, H. (2021). Rapid genome-wide sequence typing of African swine fever virus based on alleles. Virus Research, 297, 198357.

Zhang, H., Xia, M., Wang, W., Ju, D., Cao, L., Wu, B., ... & Wu, H. (2018). An attenuated highly pathogenic Chinese PRRS viral vaccine confers cross protection to pigs against challenge with the emerging PRRSV NADC30-like strain. Virologica Sinica, 33(2), 153-161.



How to Cite

CAMEROS, J. P. . ., TUDY, R. A. ., QUIDET, E. A. ., & TUDY, I. G. . (2022). Fighting Two Infection Diseases: The Tales of Local Meat Vendors in dealing with COVID-19 and ASF. GNOSI: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Theory and Praxis, 5(2), 110-122. Retrieved from